Today, the United States and the Kingdom of Bahrain signed the Comprehensive Security Integration and Prosperity Agreement. This agreement will enhance cooperation across a wide range of areas, from defense and security to emerging technology, trade, and investment. It marks the latest development in the United States’ close partnership with Bahrain and enduring commitment to the region in support of peace.
COMPREHENSIVE SECURITY INTEGRATION AND PROSPERITY AGREEMENT
The Parties to this Agreement:
Underscoring the need to build a fully integrated regional security architecture in the Middle East to deter and respond to external threats;
Recognizing that this Agreement supports the goals of, but is distinct from, the Abraham Accords Declaration signed on September 15, 2020, the Negev Forum that was first convened in March 2022, and other recent regional integration efforts, which have established new regional ties and deepened the extent of cooperation among countries in the Middle East;
Affirming the Parties’ desire to expand their defense and security cooperation; trade and investment ties; and collaboration in science and technology;
Building on the decades-long U.S. security partnership with Bahrain’s military forces; and,
Looking to foster broader regional security integration, bolster mutual deterrence against external threats, and expand cooperation in the fields of commerce, science, and technology with like-minded states in the Middle East region, and with the expectation of welcoming in the future additional parties to this Agreement in furtherance of those objectives;
Have agreed to the following:
Article I: Principles of Cooperation
This Agreement is based on the following principles and beliefs shared by the Parties:
- Cooperation among the Parties is based on the principle of full respect for the independence and sovereignty of each of the Parties, and full respect for obligations of the Parties under international law and the purposes and principles of the UN Charter.
- Cooperation among the Parties is intended to bolster Middle East regional security, stability, and prosperity by enhancing deterrence and defense integration and interoperability.
Article II: Defense and Security Cooperation
The Parties’ cooperation in the areas of defense and security is based on their shared commitment to stability and peace in the Middle East region.
It is the policy of the Parties to work together to help deter and confront any external aggression against the territorial integrity of any of the Parties.
Any external aggression or threat of external aggression against the sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity of any of the Parties shall be a matter of grave concern to the other Parties. In the event of external aggression or the threat of external aggression against one Party, the Parties shall, in accordance with their respective constitutions and laws, immediately meet at the most senior levels to determine additional defense needs and to develop and implement appropriate defense and deterrent responses as decided upon by the Parties, including in the economic, military, and/or political realms. The Parties stand ready to immediately share available and appropriate information and intelligence in response to such an event.
In order to further strengthen the security of the Parties and stability in the Middle East, and to deter threats against them, the Parties agree:
- To further implementation of existing security agreements and arrangements.
- With a view to working towards enhancing the integration of defensive systems and deterrent capacities of the Parties, particularly in the air and maritime domain, to meet on a regular basis on ways to further integrate air and missile defense capabilities, special operations forces, intelligence capacity, cyber security, strategic communication, and mutual awareness of emerging threats.
- To further bolster their defense and security cooperation as a means of continuing to strengthen their military and defense capability and improve interoperability, which may include:
- Training and military education programs;
- Provision of defense articles and services;
- Combined military maneuvers and exercises;
- Continued joint planning to confront threats to the Parties, including guiding principles, respective rules of engagement, and command and control, as appropriate; and
- Other cooperation as may be mutually decided upon by the Parties.
- To coordinate on a regular basis – and no less than biannually – on military and defense matters. This coordination shall include a particular focus on combined efforts to deter and confront threats of external aggression against one or more of the Parties.
- The Parties shall also hold a Defense Working Group convened and hosted annually by one of the Parties. The Defense Working Group shall be the primary forum for reviewing progress on implementation of this Article.
Each Party reaffirms its commitments to compliance with its obligations under international law, including the law of armed conflict.
Article III: Economic, Commercial, and Trade Cooperation
Recalling the trade and investment agreements in place between the Parties, the Parties agree to cooperate to:
- Deepen and strengthen the economic partnership among them to advance economic integration amongst the Parties and in the region.
- Identify strategic investment opportunities that benefit more than one of the Parties, develop projects that enhance bilateral and multilateral economic and trade cooperation, such as in the areas of supply chain resilience and infrastructure, and support economic development globally.
Article IV: Science, Technology, and Network Security
Recognizing that the long-term stability and prosperity of the Middle East region can be advanced by the growth in scientific and technological cooperation among the Parties, including through development and deployment of trusted technologies that further the national security of the Parties, the Parties agree to cooperate to:
- Promote scientific and technical cooperation among the Parties, including through the negotiation of appropriate arrangements for such cooperation. Such cooperation shall be subject to agreement among the Parties, consistent with existing international agreements for scientific and technical cooperation, and may include:
- Partnerships and collaborations that foster and exchange innovative ideas, information and skills;
- Strengthening scientific and technological capabilities, including by promoting broader and expanded relations between the extensive scientific and technological communities of the Parties;
- Seeking to promote scientific and technological exchanges; and
- Other cooperation in a range of scientific and technical fields as may be mutually decided upon by the Parties.
- Subject to agreement among the Parties, develop and share relevant standards, guidelines and best practices with a view to each Party securing its networks, communications systems, software, and hardware to prevent inappropriate access to sensitive information on a Party’s networks that could disrupt infrastructure or maliciously route data.
- Develop and promote a more secure, resilient, diverse, competitive, transparent, and sustainable digital and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure supply chain, particularly in global telecommunications.
Article V: Disputes and Implementation
- The Parties may enter into further agreements or arrangements as necessary and appropriate to implement this Agreement.
- Any divergence in views or disputes regarding the interpretation or application of this Agreement shall be resolved through consultation among the Parties and shall not be referred to any national or international court, tribunal or other similar body, or any third party for settlement.
- All cooperation and activities under this Agreement shall be in accordance with the domestic laws of the respective Parties and shall be subject to the availability of funds.
- This Agreement’s aim is to reinforce other agreements and arrangements that exist between the Parties. The Parties shall implement the Agreement in a manner consistent with those other agreements, and taking into account other arrangements.
Article VI: Amendment
This Agreement may be amended through mutual written agreement of the Parties.
Article VII: Signature and Entry into Force
- This Agreement shall be open for signature by the United States of America and the Kingdom of Bahrain (the “Signatory States”).
- This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of the last written notification in which the Signatory States inform each other that they have completed all necessary procedures for entry into force of this Agreement, and upon entry into force the Signatory States shall become Parties to this Agreement.
Article VIII: Additional Parties to this Agreement
- The Parties may by unanimous agreement invite any other State in a position to further the aims of this Agreement and thus contribute to Middle East security integration and prosperity to accede to this Agreement.
- This Agreement shall enter into force for such a State after it has provided written notification to each Party via diplomatic channels that it has completed all necessary procedures to become a Party to this Agreement.
- The date of entry into force of this Agreement for such a State, upon which that State shall become a Party to this Agreement, shall be thirty days after the date of the last such notification.
Article IX: Withdrawal
- After this Agreement has been in force for five years, any Party may withdraw by providing a written notification through diplomatic channels to each Party of its intent to withdraw. The withdrawal shall take effect six months after the date of the last such notification.
- In this regard, although a Party may withdraw from this Agreement, any implementing arrangement or implementing agreement such Party entered into, consistent with the terms of this Agreement, shall continue to remain in effect under its own terms, unless otherwise specified in the terms of the specific implementing arrangement or implementing agreement.
Done at Washington, this 13th day of September, 2023 in two originals in the English and Arabic languages. In the event of divergence or ambiguity between the two language texts, the English shall prevail.